Incense

Before the invention of rolling papers and pipes, shaman used various psychoactive incense in a manner very similar to what stoner's now days call 'hot-boxing', where various psychoactive, therapeutic, sacred and aromatic herbs, seeds and resins were spread over the hot embers in their campfires. The smoke from this herbal incense was then inhaled and spread over the body, which when combined with drumming, dancing, yoga like postures and special breathing techniques, allowed the shaman to enter trance states. Modern scientific studies have confirmed the psychoactive effect of incense, which effects consciousness by releasing the following 3 types of compounds into the surrounding air:

  • plant terpenes
  • plant alkaloids
  • plant hormones or pheromones